A-G

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ABCDEFG
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A

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CommandDescription
apt-getSearch for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aptitudeSearch for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
aspellSpell Checker
awkFind and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
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B

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CommandDescription
basenameStrip directory and suffix from filenames
bashGNU Bourne-Again SHell
bcArbitrary precision calculator language
bgSend to background
breakExit from a loop •
builtinRun a shell builtin
bzip2Compress or decompress named file(s)
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C

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CommandDescription
 cal Display a calendar
 case Conditionally perform a command
 cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
 cd Change Directory
 cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
 chgrp Change group ownership
 chmod Change access permissions
 chown Change file owner and group
 chroot Run a command with a different root directory
 chkconfig System services (runlevel)
 cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts clear Clear terminal screen cmp Compare two files comm Compare two sorted files line by line command Run a command – ignoring shell functions • continue Resume the next iteration of a loop • cp Copy one or more files to another location cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time csplit Split a file into context-determined piecescurlTransfer data from or to a servercutDivide a file into several parts
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D

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CommandDescription
dateDisplay or change the date & time
dcDesk Calculator
ddConvert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescueData recovery tool
declareDeclare variables and give them attributes •
dfDisplay free disk space
diffDisplay the differences between two files
diff3Show differences among three files
digDNS lookup
dirBriefly list directory contents
dircolorsColour setup for ‘ls’
dirnameConvert a full pathname to just a path
dirsDisplay list of remembered directories
dmesgPrint kernel & driver messages
duEstimate file space usage
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E

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CommandDescription
echoDisplay message on screen •
egrepSearch file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
ejectEject removable media
enableEnable and disable builtin shell commands •
envEnvironment variables
ethtoolEthernet card settings
evalEvaluate several commands/arguments
execExecute a command
exitExit the shell
expectAutomate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expandConvert tabs to spaces
exportSet an environment variable
exprEvaluate expressions
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F

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CommandDescription
 false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
 fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
 fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
 fg Send job to foreground
 fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
 file Determine file type
 find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
 fmt Reformat paragraph text
 fold Wrap text to fit a specified width
 for Expand words, and execute commands
 format Format disks or tapes
 free Display memory usage
 fsck File system consistency check and repair
 ftp File Transfer Protocol
 function Define Function Macros
 fuser lookup and exit the process that is accessing a file
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G

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CommandDescription
gawkFind and Replace text within file(s)
getoptsParse positional parameters
grepSearch file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groupaddAdd a user security group
groupdelDelete a group
groupmodModify a group
groupsPrint group names a user is in
gzipCompress or decompress named file(s)
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